​In part 1 of this blog post, we discussed the use of inositol for insulin resistance and related conditions. However, in the late 1990s and early 2000s researchers were largely focused on the effects of inositol on mood. A link between insulin resistance and depression has been established since, and may eventually provide one possible mechanism of action.…

Tags: Brain Health, Mental Health


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Inositol Supplementation – Recent Research in Mood Disorders: Part 2

Numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses have evaluated the effectiveness of inositol therapy for conditions including metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and fertility. Inositol acts as a second messenger - or intracellular signaling molecule - throughout the endocrine system and in the brain, relaying signals within the cell from an extracellular hormone such as insulin or from a neurotransmitter such as serotonin. Its ability to influence metabolism, hormone production and signaling, ovarian function, and neurotransmitter balance have sparked interest in the potential benefits of inositol as a nutritional supplement. Within the last few years alone, numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses have evaluated the effectiveness of inositol therapy for conditions including metabolic syndrome, PCOS, and fertility.…

Tags: PCOS, Mental Health, Menopause


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Inositol Supplementation – Recent Research in PCOS, Metabolic Syndrome and Mood Disorders: Part 1

There it is again! That distinct flutter in your chest that kicks up your heart rate and leaves you feeling a bit breathless. It might feel as though your heart just skipped a beat or flip-flopped in your chest and you’re left wondering, “Did my body just take me on a little roller coaster ride or was that a heart palpitation?”…

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Skipping a Beat: Hormones and Heart Palpitations

It’s an everyday occurrence when someone calls the doc line at the lab and wants to know how they can change the labs to improve their patients’ symptoms. However, it’s important to take a step back and look at what labs can tell us. While it’s true that abnormal lab findings can contribute to symptoms – high thyroid-stimulating hormone reflects hypothyroidism, high testosterone reflects polycystic ovary syndrome, and hyperandrogenism or low cortisol may contribute to fatigue. Yet, in many other conditions, labs reflect the medical condition happening in that patient’s body and not a cause of the problems. Let’s look at a couple of examples of this chicken-and-egg discussion.…

Tags: Cortisol, Estrogen, Testosterone, Menopause


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When Labs Aren’t Everything

Essential fats have been studied for several decades and entire books have been written on the subject, yet we are still learning about the role these fats play in regulating inflammation. Within the study of essential fats, some new players have emerged—the specialized pro-resolving mediators or SPMs. These are important metabolites of omega-3 fats and arachidonic acid that, as the name implies, specifically help to resolve inflammation. So how do they do that, where do they come from, and how can we get some?…

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Moderating and Resolving Inflammation with Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators

We are nearly two years into the COVID-19 pandemic. Lives have been lost around the world and the virus continues to mutate with several strains of concern circulating globally. At the time of this writing the Delta variant is responsible for most of the infections in the US and elsewhere, while the Omicron variant is rapidly emerging.…

Tags: Covid19, Metabolic Health


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Comorbidities and COVID-19: Addressing Type II Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) is the predictable rise in cortisol within the first hour of awakening. There are two events that contribute to this dynamic rise in morning cortisol. The first is in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone output from the pituitary as a part of the normal circadian activities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis with involvement from the sympathetic nervous system. The second occurs in response to exposure to daylight with the activation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus, which happens within 30-45 minutes after awakening and can increase cortisol by 50-60% from the waking value. These events take place in a timed and metered fashion, allowing for a rise and fall of cortisol over a one-hour period [1].…

Tags: Anxiety, Depression, Cortisol Awakening Response, Cortisol, Mental Health


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Anxiety, Depression, and the Cortisol Awakening Response

Anyone who has dealt with issues related to chronic fatigue has likely evaluated their hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis performance through a multi-point salivary test. Cortisol is readily measured in saliva when samples collected at predetermined intervals throughout a single day, revealing one’s physiological resilience and metabolic reserve in response to daily stressors.…

Tags: Covid19, Adrenal and Cortisol, HPA Axis


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Part IV: Long COVID and HPA Axis Dysregulation

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