A healthy and regular menstrual cycle is considered a vital sign of good health for premenopausal women. A normal menstrual cycle should occur every 25-35 days, (give or take a few days on either end), with the average cycle length falling at about 28 days. The length of the period can range from 3-7 days and the flow can be light, moderate, or heavy within a single menstrual cycle. A woman’s experience of her menstrual cycle may be unique to her, and what constitutes normal can have a broad range. Most importantly, each woman should be familiar enough with her own cycle to know if something has changed and when it is appropriate to seek help. One such situation would be the complete loss of a menstrual cycle for 3 months or more. Amenorrhea is defined as a complete absence of menses in a woman of reproductive age.…

Tags: Menstruation, Stress, Athletes, Fertility, Menopause


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Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Tale of Stress, Starvation, and Excessive Exercise

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a premenstrual disorder characterized by physical and psychological symptoms that occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and are often more extreme than the more common symptoms associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). PMS affects 20-40% of menstruating women and common symptoms include fatigue, irritability, mood swings, depression, abdominal bloating, breast tenderness, acne, changes in appetite and food cravings. PMDD occurs in 5-8% of menstruating women and is characterized by extreme mood and physical symptoms that interfere with quality of life to a significant degree.…

Tags: PMS and PMDD


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The Complex Web of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Part II

The fluctuation of hormones throughout the menstrual cycle is a normal process that supports ovulation and menstruation. Unfortunately, for some women, the inherent fluctuation of their hormone creates a rollercoaster of physical and emotional symptoms that can be extreme to the point of intolerable. While all women experience hormonal fluctuations throughout their cycle, some women experience only mild discomfort while other women feel as if their world is crashing around them. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) are premenstrual disorders characterized by physical and psychological symptoms that occur in the luteal phase (after ovulation) of the menstrual cycle. PMS affects 20-40% of menstruating women and common symptoms include fatigue, irritability, mood swings, depression, abdominal bloating, breast tenderness, acne, changes in appetite and food cravings. PMDD occurs in 5-8% of menstruating women and is characterized by extreme mood and physical symptoms to such a degree that it is difficult to function in daily life.…

Tags: PMS and PMDD


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The Complex Web of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Part I

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can develop over the course of many years without obvious symptoms until it has become quite advanced and is potentially beyond the point of reversal. The research states that the root cause of Alzheimer’s has yet to be discovered; however, if we continue to look for that ‘one thing,’ we may never find it. The development of Alzheimer’s disease is likely due to several factors that contribute to neuronal degeneration over several years.…

Tags: Alzheimer's, Cardiovascular Disease


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Common Risk Factors - Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular Disease, and Inflammation

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children; however, boys are diagnosed two to nine times more often than girls are. Girls do have ADHD, but it often goes unnoticed because it can present much differently than it does in boys. Girls tend to be quiet and inattentive whereas boys tend to be active and disruptive.…

Tags: ADD and ADHD, women, Menopause, Estrogen


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ADHD in Women: From the Dreamy-Eyed Girl in the Back of the Classroom to the Menopausal Woman Who Can’t Find Her Keys (Again)

The human microbiome maintains a close relationship with the endocrine system, indicating that these systems engage in meaningful communication and have a deep influence on each other. This is especially true in the case of estrogen and the gut microbiome. The estrobolome is the portion of the microbiome that influences estrogen metabolism. First defined in 2011, the estrobolome is the collection of all enteric bacteria capable of metabolizing estrogen. The estrobolome can impact endogenous estrogen metabolism by modulating the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens thus influencing plasma estrogen levels.…

Tags: estrobolome, gut microbes, hormones


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The Estrobolome: The Bidirectional Relationship Between Gut Microbes and Hormones

Almost certainly, women between the ages of 60 and 90 remember the shocking healthcare news in 2002 with the unexpected, early termination of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), a long-term national health study. The release of the initial results of the trials rocked the medical establishment and profoundly changed the lives of many women. Additionally, the news altered the perception of the routine, menopausal hormone replacement prescription for years to come.…

Tags: Menopause, Hormone Replacement Therapy, Estrogen


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Women's Health Initiative Revisited

When women enter menopause about 45-50 years of age, their estrogen and progesterone drop precipitously, causing a long list of unpleasant symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. The drop in estrogen also leads to greater risk for cardiovascular disease and accelerated bone loss that may lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Women are faced with making a decision to start taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to hopefully alleviate most of the symptoms and risks associated with menopause.…

Tags: Menopause, Estrogen, Progesterone, Hormone Replacement Therapy


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Summary: 10 Key Takeaways for Hormone Replacement Therapy Webinar

In a previous four-part series, we examined some of the main issues associated with long COVID, focusing on the central nervous system, ongoing inflammation and autoimmunity, mitochondrial dysregulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. While the science regarding these topics is still evolving, taking a closer look at the effects of long COVID on epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol will provide some insight regarding the toll that COVID can take on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the HPA axis.…

Tags: Covid19, Cortisol, catecholamines


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Catecholamines, Cortisol and Long COVID

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